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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:52369
Doc. No:TL22323
Call number:‭3440932‬
Main Entry:Hou-Feng Li
Title & Author:Phylogeography, interspecific competition, and control of Coptotermes formosanus and Coptotermes gestroi (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) in TaiwanHou-Feng Li
College:University of Florida
Date:2009
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2009
Page No:83
Abstract:Tokuichi Shiraki and Masamitsu Oshima were the first entomologists who studied termites in Taiwan in the early 1900s.The identification of Coptotermes species in Taiwan and southern Japan was a controversial issue that involved several Japanese entomologists as well as European authorities of termite taxonomy. The key point of the debate was whether the common termite pest species in Taiwan was a new species, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, or C. gestroi (Wasmann) of southeast Asia. Recent evidence indicated that both species existed in Taiwan at the time. Coptotermes formosanus was found to be distributed throughout the island whereas C. gestroi was limited to the south. I speculated that entomologists involved the debate in the early 1900s had collected or obtained Coptotermes samples from different localities of Taiwan and Japan. These collections might include either one of the two species or both species; hence, each researcher drew different conclusions. By analyzing partial mitochondrial sequences of COII, 12S rRNA, and 16S rRNA, I found that most Taiwanese C. formosanus populations were closely related to Japanese and some Chinese populations, and that Taiwanese C. gestroi populations were most closely related to those from the Philippines and Hawaii rather than populations from Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore and Indonesia. The intraspecific variation of C. formosanus was 0.7-0.8% for three genes among seven Taiwanese populations whereas all Taiwanese C. gestroi populations had identical sequences. The results support that Taiwan may be a center of origin for C. formosanus , but it is a recent introduction site for C. gestroi . The distributions of the two species currently overlap in Taiwan, and interspecific competition is likely to occur. The results of the foraging arena bioassay supported the long-held assumption that interspecific competition is an important regulatory factor in maintaining termite colonial territories. Tunnel interception of the two species resulted in minor fights and then both species quickly buried the connected tunnel at multiple locations, which prevented further combat and heavy losses. Termite cadavers resulting from agonistic behavior are a stimulus for tunnel blocking and a deterrent for reopening these blockages. I speculate that tunnel interceptions would offer information on conditions of neighboring colonies in the field. If both neighboring colonies are active, the agonistic interactions resulting from tunnel interception would delineate the colonial boarder. If one colony is dead or weak, the healthy colony could invade the vacated territory quickly through the existing tunnel system. Of the 17 named termite species found in Taiwan, C. formosanus and C. gestroi were the most destructive and responsible for >87% of termite structural infestations. More than 75% of infested buildings were residential premises. The liquid termiticide, containing the active ingredient fipronil, accounted for [approximate]75% market share, and baiting accounted for [approximate]20% market share. The revenue of termite control industry in 2008 was estimated as [approximate]4 million USD.
Subject:Biological sciences; Coptotermes; Interspecific competition; Subterranean termites; Urban pest; Taxonomy; Taiwan; Entomology; 0353:Entomology
Added Entry:N.-Y. Su
Added Entry:University of Florida