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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:52565
Doc. No:TL22519
Call number:‭U593846‬
Main Entry:Ahmed Mahmoud
Title & Author:Environmental optimization in new urban desert communities: A case study of the student housing units in the new American University in Cairo campusAhmed Mahmoud
College:University of London, University College London (United Kingdom)
Date:2008
Degree:M.Sc.
student score:2008
Page No:176
Abstract:Recent forecasts show continuing strong growth for worldwide energy demand over the next few years. However, while developed countries are beginning to decouple their energy consumption from economic growth (through structural reforms and increases in energy efficiency), there remains a strong direct relationship between energy consumption and countries with developing economies. Egypt, which is regarded as one of the countries with developing economies, has taken strong strides in economic reform in a relatively short period. After successful macroeconomic stabilization reforms in the early 1990s, Egypt solidified its position as middle-income country with one of the largest and strongest economies on the African continent. Unfortunately, there is an energy price for this development. As Egypt's economy grows, so does its energy consumption rate in different development sectors. One of the sectors that is recently witnessing a boom is the building sector, driven by international and local investments fuelling the development of new urban communities in the form of new cities in the desert, along with the government's efforts to provide housing opportunities for the exploding population in the capital by increasing the number of housing projects. Unfortunately the majority of the new desert development lacks concern for the preservance of the environment and energy sources as there is no real enforcement of building regulations that dictate energy efficiency. If the current practice remains, the increasing energy consumption from the building sector threatens to significantly deplete a large percentage of the country's non-renewable energy sources. Even though the majority of the past projects built lack environmental optimization, a few individual projects have attempted to set the example and take the position of pilot projects for future sustainable urban desert development. One of these projects is the new American University in Cairo campus in new Cairo. One of the main objectives of the relocation of the university from its previous downtown location to the desert of new Cairo was to achieve environmental optimization and reduce energy costs. The campus design team attempted to reduce Energy loads by applying measures such as properly orienting and massing buildings, coordinating building programming and organization, correctly shading and insulating buildings, using appropriate materials and equipment, relying on natural ventilation, capturing night time and evaporative cooling opportunities This study attempts to examine the effectiveness of the environmental design strategies applied to the campus in providing internal thermally comfortable conditions using minimal energy consumption. A prototype of a building unit from the student housing parcel was selected for a case study. Using T.A.S, building thermal simulation software, a parametric study was carried out where Passive design techniques were tested one at a time against a base line case to quantify their impact on internal Temperatures individually. The results show that the energy consumption of 31,046 kwh/year resulting from the annual mechanical air conditioning of the building could be mitigated through the following measures: - Utilizing night ventilation through exposing the internal thermal mass of the building to cool night air through a climatically responsive window schedule. - Shading the unit from surrounding buildings. - changing the orientation of the building. - Installing a retractable light tensile structure to cover the unit's external courtyard during the summer. - Adding stone cladding to the external walls. - Changing the colour of the external wall. - Adding insulation to the building envelope. - Adding & sizing windows in rooms to allow for cross ventilation. - Substituting existing window shading elements with retractable awnings. Other campus wide strategies environmental optimization strategies were then examined and it was found that increased comfort could be achieved by integrating strategies such as the thermal unit conc pt, Landscaping and evaporative cooling. The integration of renewable energies were then utilized to provide for other energy requirements of the building. Solar heating panels and Photovoltaics were found to provide all the necessary annual energy needs for supplying hot water, electricity and electrical equipments Which were found to be 44,820 kwh/year and 19,922 kwh/year respectively. Finally the study concludes by looking into the reasons that prevent the wide practice of environmental design and the integration of renewable energies and suggests possible ways to remove current barriers such as: - Improving on and implementing building codes and regulations that dictate specific energy consumption standards for different building types. - Increasing awareness among building users through campaigns and know how between - architects though courses, seminars and workshops. - Providing grants for renewable energy use.
Subject:(UMI)AAIU593846; Communication and the arts; Egypt; Architecture; 0729:Architecture
Added Entry:University of London, University College London (United Kingdom)