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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:53345
Doc. No:TL23299
Call number:‭3290723‬
Main Entry:Mark P. Nelder
Title & Author:Arthropods at the interface of exotic and native wildlife: A multifaceted approach to medical and veterinary entomology in zoos of South CarolinaMark P. Nelder
College:Clemson University
Date:2007
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2007
Page No:229
Abstract:Arthropods of medical and veterinary importance, particularly biting flies, ectoparasites, and filth flies, were surveyed at the Greenville Zoo, Greenville, South Carolina, and the Riverbanks Zoo, Columbia, South Carolina, from 2004 to 2007. The objective was to document the arthropods of medical and veterinary importance in South Carolina zoos, to determine the relationships of these arthropods to captive and free-roaming hosts, and to determine if these arthropods harbor pathogens. This research represents the first comprehensive investigation of arthropods in zoos. The most abundant mosquitoes in the zoos were Aedes albopictus Skuse, Culex quinquefasciatus Say, Aedes vexans (Meigen), and Anopheles punctipennis (Say). Fourteen species of biting midges were collected from the zoos, with more than 80% represented by Culicoides guttipennis (Coquillett), Culicoides mulrenanni Beck, Culicoides obsoletus/sanguisuga , and Culicoides stellifer Coquillett. CDC traps with ultraviolet light and carbon dioxide collected significantly more biting midges and mosquitoes compared with traps using incandescent light. Fifty one species of filth flies in 8 families were collected in the zoos. Three new species of Psychodidae (i.e., Eurygarka (2) and Telmatoscopus (1)) were collected with light traps, and new species of Brontaea (Muscidae) and Ravinia (Sarcophagidae) were reared from elephant and lion dung, respectively. The pathogenic bacterium Coxiella burnetii was detected in pools of Lucilia sericata (Meigen). I examined 133 animals or their associated nesting and bedding materials for ectoparasites; 55 species of ectoparasites were collected. Anaplasma phagocytophilum was detected in the tick Ixodes dentatus Marx, Bartonella clarridgeiae in cat fleas ( Ctenocephalides felis (Bouché)), Bartonella sp. Oh6 in squirrel fleas (Orchopeas howardi (Baker)), Bartonella sp. T7498 in sucking lice (Neohaematopinus scuiri Jancke), and Rickettsia sp. Rf2125 in multiple pools of C. felis. Vertebrate DNA was detected by sequencing a portion of the cytochrome b gene in 70 gravid and blood-engorged mosquitoes. Captive hosts of mosquitoes included Cochin chickens, Eurasian eagle owl, hippopotamus, king vulture, monitor lizard, thick-billed parrots, Toco toucan, and turkey vulture. DNA from free-roaming animals that was detected in the mosquitoes came from chipping sparrows, an eastern towhee, humans, and northern cardinals. My investigation of arthropods in zoos provides the foundation for the development of management and surveillance programs in zoos. A model was developed that identified zoos near major ports as being at greater risk of having arthropod problems. Although free-roaming animals in zoos are known to be pests, my research also identifies these animals as a threat to captive-animal and public health. The identification of blood meals in mosquitoes helps identify captive animals that are at risk of vector-borne diseases.
Subject:Biological sciences; Arthropods; Exotic wildlife; Medical entomology; Native wildlife; Veterinary entomology; Zoos; Entomology; 0353:Entomology
Added Entry:P. H. Adler
Added Entry:Clemson University