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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:53500
Doc. No:TL23454
Call number:‭3251065‬
Main Entry:Hideki Okajima
Title & Author:Orographic effects on tropical climate in a coupled ocean -atmosphere general circulation modelHideki Okajima
College:University of Hawai'i at Manoa
Date:2006
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2006
Page No:108
Abstract:Large-scale mountain modifies the atmospheric circulation directly through dynamic and thermodynamic process, and also indirectly through the interaction with the ocean. To investigate orographic impacts on tropical climate, a fully coupled general circulation model (CGCM) is developed by coupling a state-of-the-art atmospheric general circulation model and an ocean general circulation model. With realistic boundary conditions, the CGCM produces a reasonable climatology of sea surface temperature (SST), surface winds, and precipitation. When global mountains are removed, the model climatology displays substantial changes in both the mean-state and the seasonal cycle. The equatorial eastern Pacific SST acquires a semi-annual component as inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) flips and flops across the equator following the seasonal migration of the sun. Without the Andes, wet air flows into the southeastern tropical Pacific from the humid Amazon, which weakens the meridional asymmetry during the Peruvian warm season (February-April). In addition, the northeasterly trade winds are enhanced north of the equator without the orographic blocking of Central American mountains and cools SST. Triggered by the SST cooling north and moistening south of the equator, the wind-evaporation-SST (WES) feedback further weakens the meridional asymmetry and prolongs the southern ITCZ. In the Atlantic Ocean, the equatorial cold tongue is substantially strengthened and develops a pronounced annual cycle in the absence of mountains. The easterly winds are overall enhanced over the equatorial Atlantic without orographic heating over the African highlands, developing a zonal asymmetry strengthened by the Bjerknes feedback. In the Indian Ocean, the thermocline shoals eastward and an equatorial cold tongue appears twice a year. During boreal summer, the Findlater jet is greatly weakened off Somalia and SST warms in the western Indian Ocean, forcing the equatorial easterly winds amplified again by the Bjerknes feedback. During boreal winter, cold surges from the flat Asian continent enhance the easterly wind in the North Indian Ocean, resulting in another development of the equatorial cold tongue. Over the subtropical northwestern Pacific, the removal of mountains strengthens the subtropical trade winds, and SST cools, suppressing atmospheric convection. A cold thermocline dome appears in the subsurface during boreal winter but appears to have little effects on the SST.
Subject:Earth sciences; Circulation; Continental forcing; Ocean-atmosphere; Tropical climate; Geography; Oceanography; Atmosphere; 0415:Oceanography; 0725:Atmosphere; 0368:Geography
Added Entry:S.-P. Xie
Added Entry:University of Hawai'i at Manoa