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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:54212
Doc. No:TL24166
Call number:‭3231885‬
Main Entry:Tyrone O. Rooney
Title & Author:Continental rifting in central Ethiopia: Geochemical and isotopic constraints from lavas and xenolithsTyrone O. Rooney
College:The Pennsylvania State University
Date:2006
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2006
Page No:166-166 p.
Abstract:This dissertation will integrate geochemical and geophysical constraints from central-northern Ethiopia, moving closer to an integrated tectonic, structural and magmatic model of rifting process, from its initiation through the final transition to seafloor spreading. I focus on Quaternary magmatism within the Main Ethiopian Rift (MER), which is concentrated in extensional faults belts on the rift floor, specifically---the Wonjii Fault Belt and the Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone. The location of these Quaternary eruptives within presently active extensional fault belts of the MER, presents the opportunity to deduce the primitive source(s) of rift magmatism, probe crustal structure and assess the role of magmatism in continental rifting. Mass balance of bulk rock & phenocryst composition and thermodynamic modeling of mafic lavas from both zones of extension indicates heterogeneity between the two extensional fault belts in the MER. Fractionation occurs at a shallower level (~1 kb) beneath the Wonjii Fault Belt in comparison to the Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone, where fractionation occurs at various levels in the crust (<1--35 km). Shallow fractionation of the Wonjii Fault Belt lavas is consistent with calderas observed along the belt (e.g. Kone, Gedemsa) that are largely absent from the Silti-Debre Zeyit Fault Zone, where explosive maars associated with basaltic eruptions are more common. Given the strong association between these extensional fault belts and magma facilitated crustal modification (e.g. dyking, calderas), the sub-aerial distribution of Quaternary volcanism outlines the spatial distribution of lithospheric modification attendant to rifting and extension in central Ethiopia. We present lithospheric xenolith data that clearly show magmatic intrusions in the lithosphere beneath these active zones of extension, supporting geodynamic models of magma-assisted rifting. The broadly basaltic composition of these lithospheric xenoliths confirms the important role of mafic volcanism in modifying crustal structure. The Debre Zeyit and Butajira volcanic zones exhibit non-overlapping 87 Sr/86 Sr and 207 Pb/204 Pb ratios (0.7038--0.7045, 15.57--15.60 in Debre Zeyit; and 0.7036--.7038, 15.54--15.56 in Butajira). While other isotopic systems do not exhibit such variation (143 Nd/144 Nd 0.51261--0.51283, Debre Zeyit and 0.51278 to 0.51282, Butajira; 206 Pb/204 Pb 18.15--18.58, Debre Zeyit and 18.17--18.52, Butajira; 208 Pb/204 Pb 38.38--38.60, Debre Zeyit and 38.17 to 38.45, Butajira). The ubiquitous signature of the Afar Plume in Quaternary volcanism throughout the region supports magma assisted rifting models. However, a depleted mantle signature is observed in southern samples (Butajira), indicative of intrusion into the SCLM prior to the current episode of volcanism. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Subject:Earth sciences; Continental rifting; Ethiopia; Lavas; Xenoliths; Geochemistry; 0996:Geochemistry
Added Entry:T. Furman
Added Entry:The Pennsylvania State University