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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:54473
Doc. No:TL24427
Call number:‭3220968‬
Main Entry:Zachary Adam Schendel
Title & Author:The irrelevant sound effect: Similarity of content or similarity of process?Zachary Adam Schendel
College:The Ohio State University
Date:2006
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2006
Page No:100
Abstract:The purpose of this dissertation was twofold: The general purpose was to further investigate the properties of the phonological loop by extending the irrelevant sound effect paradigm to music. The specific purpose was to investigate the similarity of content (Salame & Baddley, 1982; 1989) and similarity of process (Jones & Macken, 1993; 1995) hypotheses of working memory in order to determine which could best account for the irrelevant sound effects in both language and music. Experiment I consisted of serial recall of visually presented nine-digit (selected from the digits 1-9) or nine-note (selected from the notes C4-E5) sequences in the presence of silence, instrumental music, vocal music, or Arabic speech. Digit results supported the similarity of content hypothesis. Note results provided mixed results. Experiment IIA used a six-digit or four-tone standard-comparison task. The digit trials were set up with a visual-standard/auditory-comparison procedure and the tone trials were set up as an auditory-standard/auditory-comparison procedure so as to force participants to rehearse in an auditory form. The same irrelevant sound conditions as in Experiment I were used. Both digit and tone results supported the similarity of content hypothesis: reater overlap between the irrelevant sound and the rehearsed information resulted in greater performance decrements. Experiment IIB used only digits and was the same as the digit half of Experiment IIA, but the irrelevant sound conditions were a between participant factor. Results of Experiment IIB replicated the results of Experiment IIA. Experiment III used an auditory-standard/auditory-comparison procedure with both six-digit and four-tone sequences. The irrelevant sound conditions were silence, low-overlap, and high-overlap irrelevant sound. For the digit trials, high-overlap irrelevant sound consisted of a random series of spoken digits in the same range as the stimuli (1-9), while low-overlap irrelevant sound consisted of a series of nine random spoken words that did not rhyme with the digits 1-9. For the tone trials, high-overlap irrelevant sound consisted of a random series of auditory piano tones in the same range as the stimuli (C4-E5), while low-overlap irrelevant sound consisted of a random series of nine piano tones which were members of the C# Major scale and outside of the stimulus range. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)
Subject:Psychology; Acoustic overlap hypothesis; Irrelevant sound effect; Music; Phonological loop; Speech; Tones; Working memory; Cognitive therapy; 0633:Cognitive therapy
Added Entry:N. Johnson
Added Entry:The Ohio State University