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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:54638
Doc. No:TL24592
Call number:‭3510123‬
Main Entry:Tal Shay
Title & Author:From DNA Copy Number to Gene Expression: Local aberrations, Trisomies and MonosomiesTal Shay
College:The Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)
Date:2009
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2009
Page No:132
Abstract:The goal of my PhD research was to study the effect of DNA copy number changes on gene expression. DNA copy number aberrations may be local, encompassing several genes, or on the level of an entire chromosome, such as trisomy and monosomy. The main dataset I studied was of Glioblastoma, obtained in the framework of a collaboration, but I worked also with public datasets of cancer and Down's Syndrome. The molecular basis of expression changes in Glioblastoma. Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive type of primary brain tumors in adults. In collaboration with Prof. Hegi (CHUV, Switzerland), we analyzed a rich Glioblastoma dataset including clinical information, DNA copy number (array CGH) and expression profiles. We explored the correlation between DNA copy number and gene expression at the level of chromosomal arms and local genomic aberrations. We detected known amplification and over expression of oncogenes, as well as deletion and down-regulation of tumor suppressor genes. We exploited that information to map alterations of pathways that are known to be disrupted in Glioblastoma, and tried to characterize samples that have no known alteration in any of the studied pathways. Identifying local DNA aberrations of biological significance. Many types of tumors exhibit chromosomal losses or gains and local amplifications and deletions. A region that is aberrant in many tumors, or whose copy number change is stronger, is more likely to be clinically relevant, and not just a by-product of genetic instability. We developed a novel method that defines and prioritizes aberrations by formalizing these intuitions. The method scores each aberration by the fraction of patients harboring it, its length and its amplitude, and assesses the significance of the score by comparing it to a distribution obtained by permutations. This approach detects genetic locations that are significantly aberrant, generating a 'genomic aberration profile' for each sample. The 'genomic aberration profile' is then combined with chromosomal arm status (gain/loss) to define a succinct genomic signature for each tumor. Unsupervised clustering of the samples based on these genomic signatures can reveal novel tumor subtypes. This approach was applied to datasets from three types of brain tumors: Glioblastoma, Medulloblastoma and Neuroblastoma, and identified a new subtype in Medulloblastoma, characterized by many chromosomal aberrations. Elucidating the transcriptional effect of monosomy and trisomy. Trisomy and monosomy are expected to impact the expression of genes that are located on the affected chromosome. Analysis of several cancer datasets revealed that not all the genes on the aberrant chromosome are affected by the change of copy number. Affected genes exhibit a wide range of expression changes with varying penetrance. Specifically, (1) The effect of trisomy is much more conserved among individuals than the effect of monosomy and (2) the expression level of a gene in the diploid is significantly correlated with the level of change between the diploid and the trisomy or monosomy.
Subject:Pure sciences; Biological sciences; Chromosome; DNA aberrations; DNA copy numbers; Gene expression; Glioblastoma; Monosomy; Trisomy; Genetics; Physics; Biophysics; 0786:Biophysics; 0369:Genetics; 0605:Physics
Added Entry:E. Domany
Added Entry:The Weizmann Institute of Science (Israel)