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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:54764
Doc. No:TL24718
Call number:‭1454324‬
Main Entry:Oumie C. Sissoho
Title & Author:Analysis of the role of the United Nations, international organizations and NGOs in the eradication of female genital mutilationOumie C. Sissoho
College:Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
Date:2008
Degree:M.P.A.
student score:2008
Page No:64
Abstract:When the phrase "women's rights are human rights" was affirmed in the Beijing Declaration at the 1995 United Nations Fourth World Conference on Women, it was a major conceptual and political breakthrough, capping an extraordinary advocacy campaign of women from all parts of the world, north, south, east and west. That campaign was largely focused on getting the United Nations to accept that the rights of women were indeed human rights, not something different, private, or outside the purview and reach of the investigators and the many human rights bodies set up at the UN. Achieving affirmation that women and their rights are indeed part of the mainstream concerns of international human rights and the bodies that implement it, was a pronounced accomplishment in 1995. The principle of the equal rights of women and men was recognized in the Charter of the United Nations, and is contained in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and all subsequent major international human rights instruments. The principle of equality in these instruments was an important step in the recognition of the rights of women. Yet traditional exclusion of women from the public domain has persisted in many countries. The need for women's participation in all spheres of society - in both the public and the private domains was recognized and specific standards for the protection of women's rights was created in recognition of the inequality and discrimination in the private domain. In 1979, the United Nations General Assembly adopted the Convention on the Elimination on All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW), a woman's right to non-discrimination on the basis of sex, and affirmed equality in international law was established. It provided that women and men are entitled to the equal enjoyment and exercise of human rights and fundamental freedoms in civil, cultural, economic, political and social fields. The 1993 Vienna Conference on Human Rights, the 1994 Cairo Conference on Population and Development and the 1995 Beijing Women's World Conference, recognized the need to build on these principles to assert women's rights. These global conferences promoted the review of policies and programs from the perspective of their impact on women and men - in other words, a re-evaluation of policies and programs from a gender perspective. Using Female Genital Mutilation as an example, a practice that unfortunately still impacts many women in Third World countries, I will analyze the development of women's rights over the years and the United Nations, NGOs and International Organization's role in eradicating the practice of female genital mutilation. I will also analyze why some FGM programs work and some don't. When laws, customs, traditional roles, family responsibilities or attitudes and stereotypes provide women with fewer opportunities or place them at a disadvantage as they seek access to opportunities. Remedial measures are needed to eliminate such disadvantages, and to prevent them from recurring. When policies are designed in the context of respect for, and promotion and protection of, human rights, then unequal outcomes for women in the economic and social spheres oblige governments to design items in a way that reduces inequalities.
Subject:Social sciences; Public administration; 0617:Public administration
Added Entry:Kutztown University of Pennsylvania