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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:55092
Doc. No:TL25046
Call number:‭NR43913‬
Main Entry:Mahin Tavakoli
Title & Author:The nature, function, and social context of advice: A cross -cultural studyMahin Tavakoli
College:Carleton University (Canada)
Date:2008
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2008
Page No:242
Abstract:Four studies were conducted to explore the nature and social context of advice given to university-aged participants in two cultures: Canada and Iran. Study 1 examined the types of decisions made by participants and the advice received about the decisions, the frequencies of requested or unrequested advice, and how much pressure participants felt to take the advice received. Study 2 examined who gave advice, which topics were most likely to lead participants in the two cultures to want, to seek, and to receive unrequested advice, and how much social pressure accompanied both kinds of advice about the topics. Study 3 analyzed the content and directiveness of advice given by participants in response to selected letters from Canadian and Iranian advice columns. Study 4 explored the antecedents of conflicts arising from advice, the emotional reactions to these conflicts, the duration of conflicts, and strategies of conflict resolution. A large number of cultural differences, and some sex differences, were found in all four studies. For example, while Iranians more often wanted and requested advice, Canadians fell more pressure to take the advice they were given. Iranians especially wanted and requested advice about topics that emphasized interpersonal relationships (e.g., choosing friends, visiting relatives, and marrying). Canadians more than Iranians tended to request advice from peers, while Iranians more than Canadians tended to seek advice from siblings, counsellors, and teachers. Iranians received more unrequested advice from extended family members; Canadians received more unrequested advice from friends, media, and the society. Advice given by Iranians tended to be shorter, simpler, and more directive than advice given by Canadians. Iranian advice also emphasized toleration and adapting the self to the situation, while Canadian advice emphasized compromise, adapting the situation to the self, and seeking further advice of others. Iranians, especially Iranian females, experienced significantly more conflicts with their advisors over minor decisions than did Canadians. Canadians expressed more emotional reactions to conflict inducing advice than did Iranians. Ignoring advice in Iran produced more anger among people who gave advice, as well as more intense conflicts. Iranians resorted to more frequent and longer persuasive communications to resolve conflicts than did Canadians. Iranians more than Canadians resolved their conflicts by compliance; while Canadians more than Iranians resolved their conflicts by compromise. While many tests of gender differences in advice among Iranians were significant, no significant Canadian gender differences were found. The results largely supported theories of cultural differences locating Canada and Iran at opposite ends of three continua: (1) individualism-collectivism; (2) egalitarianism-hierarchy; and (3) femininity-masculinity. The results also indicated that measures of advice are more sensitive to cultural differences in social networks and social expectations than are standardized but general tests of cultural attitudes such as the Relationalism, Individualism, Collectivism Scale (Kashima & Hardie, 2000).
Subject:Social sciences; Psychology; Advice; Canada; Cultural differences; Iran; Cultural anthropology; Social psychology; Experimental psychology; 0326:Cultural anthropology; 0623:Experimental psychology; 0451:Social psychology
Added Entry:Carleton University (Canada)