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Document Type:Latin Dissertation
Language of Document:English
Record Number:55505
Doc. No:TL25459
Call number:‭3211194‬
Main Entry:Xiuyu Wang
Title & Author:China's last imperial frontier: Statecraft and locality in Qing Kham Tibet, 1890–1911Xiuyu Wang
College:Carnegie Mellon University
Date:2006
Degree:Ph.D.
student score:2006
Page No:396
Abstract:Defying our usual image of the late Qing as a victim of internal decline and diplomatic ineffectiveness, the empire exhibited surprising rigor in Kham Tibet in its last decade, suppressing monasteries, removing hereditary chieftains and fashioning localities in the image of China proper. This study focuses on the interactions of ground officials with Tibetan authorities during this rapid but uneven administrative regularization drive, or gaitu guiliu . I analyze Qing expansion from the angles of state bureaucracy and local society, attending to both discourses and specific local balance of power. In regards to state action, a new spurt of expansionism in Sichuan overcame official factionalism and court indecision. Modern-style armies waged destructive campaigns to revenge past defeats and to break up Kham monastic-bureaucratic alliances. Under the newly-created Sichuan-Yunnan Frontier Commission, Kham local leaders served under Han magistrates in administering local affairs. Chinese-style bureaucracy, taxation, economy and education were imposed. Standard tax rates were applied to all regardless of former privileges. In the name of fighting a "commerce war" against British Indian tea companies, Chinese companies took over Kham's tea, salt and gold businesses. Culturally, Tibetan children were required to study Chinese in government schools. Ethnic practices of dress, naming, marriage and cleanliness were changed for the sake of spreading civilization. The Khampas responded in various creative ways. Local attitudes ranged from cooperative to oppositional, with the factions trying to use Qing forces to their own advantage, much like they did for centuries. Seen in this multi-dimensional local setting, Qing statecraft hybridized several ruling strategies, including traditional Manchu court patronage of Tibetan Buddhist sects, the Confucian concerns with balancing force with favor, and a rising nationalistic impulse for exclusive territorial control in opposition to British and Russian colonialism. In this conjuncture, a group of expansionist frontier officials, many of whom were Han although Manchu and Mongol officials also participated, took initiatives to intimidate a frontier region where state force was usually vulnerable. New patterns of Sino-Tibetan relations were forged in the crucible of frontier social change. These developments would set the stage for the two succeeding regimes in their Tibetan policy-making.
Subject:Social sciences; China; Frontier; Imperial; Kham; Locality; Qing dynasty; Statecraft; Tibet; History; Minority & ethnic groups; Sociology; Cultural anthropology; 0326:Cultural anthropology; 0631:Sociology; 0332:History; 0631:Minority & ethnic groups
Added Entry:D. S. Sutton
Added Entry:Carnegie Mellon University